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8292744It is widely considered that England created the market for glamour modelling when The Sun established Page 3 in 1969, a section in their newspaper which now features topless models. In the beginning, the newspaper featured sexually suggestive images of Penthouse and Playboy models. It was not until 1970 that models appeared topless. In the 1980s, The Sun‘s competitors followed suit and produced their own Page 3 sections.   It was during this time glamour models first came to prominence.   As a result, the United Kingdom has a very large glamour market and has numerous glamour modelling agencies to this day.

It was not until the 1990s that modern glamour modelling was established. During this time, the fashion industry was promoting models with waif bodies and androgynous women, which left a void. Several fashion models that were deemed too commercial and too curvaceous were frustrated with industry standard and took a different approach. Models that left the fashion world began modelling for men’s magazines.    Previously posing nude for Playboy merited in a model losing their agencies and endorsements.   In the mid-1990s, a series of men’s magazines were established such as Maxim, FHM and Stuff.  At the same time, magazines like Sweden’s Slitz re-branded themselves as a men’s magazine. Pre-internet, these magazines were popular among men in their late teens and early twenties because they were considered to be more tasteful than their predecessors. With glamour market growing, fashion moved away from the waifs and onto the Brazilian bombshells. The glamour market which consisted mostly of commercial fashion models and commercial print models became its own genre due to its popularity. Even with a large market in the United Kingdom, glamour models are not usually exclusively signed to one agency as they cannot financially rely on one agency to provide them with enough work. It was and still is a common practice for glamour models to partake in kiss-and-tell interviews about their dalliances with famous men.

 The notoriety of their alleged bed-hopping often propels their popularity and they are often promoted by their current or former fling.  With Page 3 models becoming fixtures in the British tabloids,
glamour models became household names.   By 2004, Page 3 regulars earned anywhere for 30,000 to 40,000, where the average salary of a non-Page 3 model as of 2011 is between 10,000 and 20,000.    In the early 2000s, glamour models and aspiring glamour models appeared on reality television shows such as Big Brother to gain fame.

Runway models showcase clothes from fashion designers, fashion media, and consumers. They are also called “live models” and are self-employed. Runway models work in different locations, constantly traveling between those cities where fashion is well known – London, Milan, New York City and Paris.   Second-tier international fashion center cities includes Rome, Florence, Venice, Barcelona, Brescia, Los Angeles, Tokyo and Moscow Cities where catalog work comprises the bulk of fashion packaging, merchandising and marketing work includes Miami, San Francisco, Sydney, Chicago, Toronto, Mexico City, Tokyo, Hamburg, London and Beijing.

The demands for runway models include certain height and weight requirements. During runway shows, models have to constantly change clothes and makeup. The models walk, turn and stand in order to demonstrate the garment’s key features. Models also go to interviews (called “go and sees”) presenting the absolute requirement of a portfolio.   The more experience a model has, the more likely she is to be hired for a fashion show. A runway model can also work in other areas, such as department store fashion shows, and the most successful models sometimes create their own product lines, go into acting etc.   The average model is very slender. Those who do not meet the size requirement often try for becoming a Plus-size model.  Even male models have preferred dimensions (a height of 5 ft 11 in (180 cm) to 6 ft 2 in (188 cm), a waist of 29–32 in (73.66–81.28 cm) and a chest measurement of 39–40 in (99.06–101.60 cm)).   The models have been noted as being skinny and well-toned.

Male and female models must also possess clear skin, healthy hair, and attractive facial features. Stringent weight and body proportion guidelines form a selective criteria by which established and would‑be models are judged for their placement suitability, on an ongoing basis—with some variation regionally and market tier-level dependent, subject, too, to current prevailing trends at any point, in any era—by agents, agencies and end-clients.

The often thin shape of many fashion models has been criticized for warping girls’ body image and encouraging eating disorders.   Organizers of a fashion show in Madrid turned away models that were judged to be underweight by medical personnel who were on hand. In the early 21st century, runway walks became less flamboyant compared to the late 20th century, when Naomi Campbell and other supermodels were known for their distinct struts.  Most designers preferred a natural stroll.   Supermodels are highly paid, high profile fashion models with a great amount of experience. These celebrities appear on top fashion magazine covers, national advertisements such as commercials or spreads and in fashion shows.  Much more importantly, in financial terms, their appearance in advertising can amount to an endorsement, attracting far greater rewards, especially when they conclude deals to advertise a brand exclusively, as “the face” of that brand.

Plus-size models are models who have larger measurements than editorial fashion models. The primary use of plus-size models is to appear in advertising and runway shows for plus size labels. Plus-size models are also engaged in work that is not strictly related to selling large-sized clothing, e.g., stock photography and advertising photography for cosmetics, household and pharmaceutical products and sunglasses, footwear and watches. Therefore plus-size models do not exclusively wear garments marketed as plus-size clothing. This is especially true when participating in fashion editorials for mainstream fashion magazines. Some plus-size models have appeared in runway shows and campaigns for mainstream retailers and designers such as Gucci, Guess, Jean-Paul Gaulthier, Levi’s and Versace Jeans.

Glamour modeling focuses solely on sexuality. Therefore, there are no requirements to be a glamour model other than the ability to pose seductively. Glamour models can be any size or shape. There is no industry standard for glamour modelling and varies greatly by country. For the most part, glamour models are limited to modelling in calendars, men’s magazines (like Playboy), lingerie modelling, fetish modelling, music videos, and extra work in movies. However, extremely popular glamour models often transition into commercial print modelling appearing in swimwear and lingerie campaigns.

A gravure idol is a Japanese female model who primarily models in magazines, especially men’s magazines, photobooks or DVDs. Gravure idols, in most cases, emphasize their sexual attractiveness and often model in swimsuits or lingerie.   “Gravure” is a Wasei-eigo term derived from “rotrogravure”, which is a type of  intaglio printing process that was once a staple of newspaper photo features. The rotogravure process is still used for commercial printing of magazines, postcards, and cardboard product packaging.

Gravure idols appear in a wide range of photography styles and genres. Their photos are largely aimed at male audiences with poses or activities often intended to be provocative or suggestive, generally accentuated by an air of playfulness and innocence rather than aggressive sexuality. Though gravure models may sometimes wear clothing that exposes most of their body, their nipples and genitals are generally covered and they seldom appear fully nude.  It is also common for gravure idols to have very large breasts and in their videos models are often shown performing activities specifically intended to cause their breasts to bounce or shake such as jogging or doing jumping jacks.

An alternative model is any model that does not fit into the conventional model types and may include punk, goth, fetish, tattooed, models or models with distinctive attributes. This type of modelling is usually a cross between glamour modelling and art modelling. Publishers such as Goliath Books in Germany introduced alternative models and punk photography to larger audiences.  Billi Gordon, an alternative model, appeared on more greeting cards than any other model in the world, and at the height of her/his career was paid $12,000 an hour.

Some models are employed for their body parts. For example, hand models may be used to promote products held in the hand and nail-related products. They are frequently part of television commercials. Many parts models have exceptionally attractive body parts, but there is also demand for unattractive or unusual looking body parts for particular campaigns.

Hands are the most demanded body parts. Feet are also one of the most demanded body parts, particularly those that fit sample size shoes.  Models are also successful modeling specific parts including abs, arms, back, bust or chest, legs, and lips.   Petite models (females who are under 5 ft 6 in (1.68 m) and do not qualify as fashion models) have found success in women body part modelling.

Parts model divisions can be found at agencies worldwide. Several agencies solely represent parts models, including Hired Hands in London, Body Parts Models in Los Angeles, Carmen Hand Model Management in New York and Parts Models in New York.  Parts Models is the largest parts agency, representing over 300 parts models

Kathy Kiefer


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