ANAEROBIC EXERCISE

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Anaerobic-Exercises

ANAEROBIC EXERCISE

 

Anaerobic exercise is an exercise intense enough to trigger lactic acid formation. It is used by athletes in non-endurance sports to promote strength, speed and power and by body builders to build muscle mass. Muscle energy systems trained using anaerobic exercise develop differently compared to aerobic exercise, leading to greater performance in short duration, high intensity activities, which last from mere seconds to up to about 2 minutes. Any activity lasting longer than about two minutes has a large aerobic metabolic component.

The words aerobic and anaerobic refer to energy pathways that are utilized during exercise. Aerobic means “with oxygen” and anaerobic means “without oxygen”. Fat needs oxygen to burn completely so in order to burn fat during an exercise we need to move slowly and smoothly. This enables muscle cells to be supplied with enough oxygen to continue with its aerobic capacity and utilize fat as the main energy source.

Anaerobic exercise requires moving at an increased pace or with greater effort. Exercising this way burns more calories but results in a greater demand for oxygen which cannot be delivered in sufficient quantities to allow cells to continue burning fat. When we breathe heavy we start to develop an oxygen debt and muscle cells switch to burning mainly carbohydrates, this fuel burns quickly and does not require oxygen.

Anaerobic exercises such as sprinting or weight training require more effort and up to 95% of the fuel used will be carbohydrates.   Although anaerobic exercises burn more carbohydrates they can be important in any weight loss program. They help burn fat indirectly by increasing the metabolic rate after an exercise session

Anaerobic metabolism, or anaerobic energy expenditure, is a natural part of whole-body metabolic energy expenditure. Fast twitch muscle (as compared to slow twitch muscle) operates using anaerobic metabolic systems, such that any recruitment of fast twitch muscle fibers leads to increased anaerobic energy expenditure. Intense exercise lasting upwards of about four minutes (e.g., a mile race) may still have a considerable anaerobic energy expenditure component. Anaerobic energy expenditure is difficult to accurately quantify, although several reasonable methods to estimate the anaerobic component to exercise are available.

In contrast, aerobic exercise includes lower intensity activities performed for longer periods of time. Activities such as walking, long slow runs, rowing and cycling require a great deal of oxygen to generate the energy needed for prolonged exercise (i.e., aerobic energy expenditure). In sports which require repeated short bursts of exercise however, the anaerobic system enables muscles to recover for the next burst. Therefore, training for many sports demands that both energy producing systems be developed.

There are two types of anaerobic energy systems: 1) the high energy phosphates, ATP adenosine triphosphate and CP creatine phosphate; and 2) anaerobic glycolysis. The high energy phosphates are stored in very limited quantities within muscle cells. Anaerobic glycolysis exclusively uses glucose (and glycogen) as a fuel in the absence of oxygen or more specifically, when ATP is needed at rates that exceed those provided by aerobic metabolism; the consequence of rapid glucose breakdown is the formation of lactic acid (more appropriately, lactate at biological pH levels). Physical activities that last up to about thirty seconds rely primarily on the former, ATP-CP phosphagen system.  Beyond this time both aerobic and anaerobic glycolytic metabolic systems begin to predominate.

The by-product of anaerobic glycolysis, lactate, has traditionally been thought to be detrimental to muscle function. However, this appears likely only when lactate levels are very high. Elevated lactate levels are only one of many changes that occur within and around muscle cells during intense exercise that can lead to fatigue. Fatigue, that is muscular failure, is a complex subject. Elevated muscle and blood lactate concentrations are a natural consequence of any physical exertion. The effectiveness of anaerobic activity can be improved through training.

Anaerobic exercise is a form of high-intensity exercise that increases a substantial oxygen deficit. When performing at elevated intensity levels, your cardiovascular system has a challenging time delivering the oxygen requirement needed to your muscles fast enough. Since muscles require oxygen to maintain prolonged exertion, anaerobic exercises can only continue for short periods of time. Examples of anaerobic activity include sprinting, high-intensity interval training, powerlifting and most athletic sports.

Aerobic metabolism burns fat for energy while anaerobic exercise burns glycogen to meet its energy requirement. As exercise intensity increases, the need for energy release ultimately surpasses levels that can be fulfilled by aerobic metabolism. During anaerobic activity, muscles require more response to sustain the energy requirements. Consequently, anaerobic metabolic involvement increases, known as metabolic threshold. Since anaerobic activity raises your heart rate close to your maximum heart rate, always consult with your physician prior to beginning any anaerobic exercise.

Biking sprints, swimming sprints and running sprints are examples of anaerobic activities. During sprinting, the muscles rapidly deplete energy reserves before heavy breathing begins. Sprinting demonstrates the requirement of a significant amount of oxygen needed by muscles to perform the activity. To perform, bike, swim or jog slowly for five minutes, then sprint at maximum speed for 30 to 90 seconds.  Return to a slow speed for two minutes. Repeat the sprint and slow interval for 30 minutes.

High-intensity interval training, or HIIT, is another form of anaerobic exercise. According to the American Council on Exercise, “High-intensity interval training (HIIT) is a cardiorespiratory training technique that alternates brief speed and recovery intervals to increase the overall intensity of your workout.” HIIT can be performed with body-weight activities, such as pushups or crunches, to develop strength and power. To perform, walk for three minutes followed by performing as many pushups or crunches as you can in 20 seconds followed by gentle walking for 10 seconds. Repeat this interval 10 times, followed by a three-minute cool-down.

Anaerobic training develops the anaerobic metabolic capability of the muscles trained, raising the capacity of the athlete training and functioning at elevated exercise concentration. Powerlifting is a type of anaerobic resistance training that necessitates the bodybuilder to accomplish one repetition maximum each of three different lifts – squat, bench press and deadlift. Powerlifting is performed with a maximum amount of weight, with maximal effort and for three to 10 seconds. The main objective of this type of training is to intensify strength and power.

Anaerobic exercises comprise brief periods of physical exertion and high-intensity, strength-training activities. Sports such as basketball, football, tennis, racquetball and baseball are also anaerobic activities. These sports require brief surges of high-intensity activity, lasting two minutes or fewer, with short episodes of recovery. Since anaerobic activities allow quicker recovery time, sports are efficient forms of anaerobic exercises.

Anaerobic exercise is an exercise intense enough to trigger lactic acid formation. It is used by athletes in non-endurance sports to promote strength, speed and power and by body builders to build muscle mass. Muscle energy systems trained using anaerobic exercise develop differently compared to aerobic exercise, leading to greater performance in short duration, high intensity activities, which last from mere seconds to up to about 2 minutes. Any activity lasting longer than about two minutes has a large aerobic metabolic component.

The words aerobic and anaerobic refer to energy pathways that are utilized during exercise. Aerobic means “with oxygen” and anaerobic means “without oxygen”. Fat needs oxygen to burn completely so in order to burn fat during an exercise we need to move slowly and smoothly. This enables muscle cells to be supplied with enough oxygen to continue with its aerobic capacity and utilize fat as the main energy source.

Anaerobic exercise requires moving at an increased pace or with greater effort. Exercising this way burns more calories but results in a greater demand for oxygen which cannot be delivered in sufficient quantities to allow cells to continue burning fat. When we breathe heavy we start to develop an oxygen debt and muscle cells switch to burning mainly carbohydrates, this fuel burns quickly and does not require oxygen.

Anaerobic exercises such as sprinting or weight training require more effort and up to 95% of the fuel used will be carbohydrates.   Although anaerobic exercises burn more carbohydrates they can be important in any weight loss program. They help burn fat indirectly by increasing the metabolic rate after an exercise session

Anaerobic metabolism, or anaerobic energy expenditure, is a natural part of whole-body metabolic energy expenditure. Fast twitch muscle (as compared to slow twitch muscle) operates using anaerobic metabolic systems, such that any recruitment of fast twitch muscle fibers leads to increased anaerobic energy expenditure. Intense exercise lasting upwards of about four minutes (e.g., a mile race) may still have a considerable anaerobic energy expenditure component. Anaerobic energy expenditure is difficult to accurately quantify, although several reasonable methods to estimate the anaerobic component to exercise are available.

In contrast, aerobic exercise includes lower intensity activities performed for longer periods of time. Activities such as walking, long slow runs, rowing and cycling require a great deal of oxygen to generate the energy needed for prolonged exercise (i.e., aerobic energy expenditure). In sports which require repeated short bursts of exercise however, the anaerobic system enables muscles to recover for the next burst. Therefore, training for many sports demands that both energy producing systems be developed.

There are two types of anaerobic energy systems: 1) the high energy phosphates, ATP adenosine triphosphate and CP creatine phosphate; and 2) anaerobic glycolysis. The high energy phosphates are stored in very limited quantities within muscle cells. Anaerobic glycolysis exclusively uses glucose (and glycogen) as a fuel in the absence of oxygen or more specifically, when ATP is needed at rates that exceed those provided by aerobic metabolism; the consequence of rapid glucose breakdown is the formation of lactic acid (more appropriately, lactate at biological pH levels). Physical activities that last up to about thirty seconds rely primarily on the former, ATP-CP phosphagen system.  Beyond this time both aerobic and anaerobic glycolytic metabolic systems begin to predominate.

The by-product of anaerobic glycolysis, lactate, has traditionally been thought to be detrimental to muscle function. However, this appears likely only when lactate levels are very high. Elevated lactate levels are only one of many changes that occur within and around muscle cells during intense exercise that can lead to fatigue. Fatigue, that is muscular failure, is a complex subject. Elevated muscle and blood lactate concentrations are a natural consequence of any physical exertion. The effectiveness of anaerobic activity can be improved through training.

Anaerobic exercise is a form of high-intensity exercise that increases a substantial oxygen deficit. When performing at elevated intensity levels, your cardiovascular system has a challenging time delivering the oxygen requirement needed to your muscles fast enough. Since muscles require oxygen to maintain prolonged exertion, anaerobic exercises can only continue for short periods of time. Examples of anaerobic activity include sprinting, high-intensity interval training, powerlifting and most athletic sports.

Aerobic metabolism burns fat for energy while anaerobic exercise burns glycogen to meet its energy requirement. As exercise intensity increases, the need for energy release ultimately surpasses levels that can be fulfilled by aerobic metabolism. During anaerobic activity, muscles require more response to sustain the energy requirements. Consequently, anaerobic metabolic involvement increases, known as metabolic threshold. Since anaerobic activity raises your heart rate close to your maximum heart rate, always consult with your physician prior to beginning any anaerobic exercise.

Biking sprints, swimming sprints and running sprints are examples of anaerobic activities. During sprinting, the muscles rapidly deplete energy reserves before heavy breathing begins. Sprinting demonstrates the requirement of a significant amount of oxygen needed by muscles to perform the activity. To perform, bike, swim or jog slowly for five minutes, then sprint at maximum speed for 30 to 90 seconds.  Return to a slow speed for two minutes. Repeat the sprint and slow interval for 30 minutes.

High-intensity interval training, or HIIT, is another form of anaerobic exercise. According to the American Council on Exercise, “High-intensity interval training (HIIT) is a cardiorespiratory training technique that alternates brief speed and recovery intervals to increase the overall intensity of your workout.” HIIT can be performed with body-weight activities, such as pushups or crunches, to develop strength and power. To perform, walk for three minutes followed by performing as many pushups or crunches as you can in 20 seconds followed by gentle walking for 10 seconds. Repeat this interval 10 times, followed by a three-minute cool-down.

Anaerobic training develops the anaerobic metabolic capability of the muscles trained, raising the capacity of the athlete training and functioning at elevated exercise concentration. Powerlifting is a type of anaerobic resistance training that necessitates the bodybuilder to accomplish one repetition maximum each of three different lifts – squat, bench press and deadlift. Powerlifting is performed with a maximum amount of weight, with maximal effort and for three to 10 seconds. The main objective of this type of training is to intensify strength and power.

Anaerobic exercises comprise brief periods of physical exertion and high-intensity, strength-training activities. Sports such as basketball, football, tennis, racquetball and baseball are also anaerobic activities. These sports require brief surges of high-intensity activity, lasting two minutes or fewer, with short episodes of recovery. Since anaerobic activities allow quicker recovery time, sports are efficient forms of anaerobic exercises.

Kathy Kiefer

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