PREDICTING THE FUTURE
WHY GO TO FORTUNE TELLERS, MEDIUMS AND OTHERS?
What Is A Clairvoyant? What Is A Fortune Teller? What about a Medium?
Fortune-telling is the practice of predicting information about a person’s life. The scope of fortune-telling is in principle identical with the practice of divination. The difference is that divination is the term used for predictions considered part of a religious ritual, invoking deities or spirits, while the term fortune-telling implies a less serious or formal setting, even one of popular culture, where belief in occult workings behind the prediction is less prominent than the concept of suggestion, spiritual or practical advisory or affirmation.
You may have heard the word “medium” used during discussions about psychic abilities, particularly those involving communication with the spirit world. Traditionally, a medium is someone who speaks, in one way or another, to the dead. Mediums obtain messages from the spirit world in different ways. Some receive intuitive information, in which images and words appear as mental impressions that are then relayed along to the living. In other cases, a medium may hear actual auditory messages or see actual images of these messages.
Clairvoyance often stands for “seeing clearly“. To be known as a type of Psychic gift, this ability enables a reader, also known as a Clairvoyant, to see the invisible, remote, or spiritual things. Some Clairvoyants are the remote viewers. In other words, they can see something that is happening far away. Although they are not basically visions of the future, they are truly visions of the present. These special Clairvoyants are often proficient in searching for the missing people or items since they might observe the right location at the time which the inquiry is being asked. In addition, other Clairvoyants tend to get more spiritual information. Yes, they could see the auras, energy fields, or even look at someone, and then physically observe the status of their chakra. These types of Clairvoyants can also notice the spirit realm clearly which may be alarming whenever they do not know what to expect or when they are opening up to their powers for the first time.
A Fortune Teller is really adept at dramatizing a circumstance or a session. Through making use of numerous devices, this sacred reader is able to convince a customer that her prediction or consultation is truly genuine, and she herself owns a unique bond with the divine force. She will quickly understand that her seeker takes his own life most seriously, and will find any way to resolve his future. Taking advantage of the knowledge that uncertainty and fear are 2 of the greatest motivators for a person, a Fortune Teller will surely develop a sense of imminence around her forecast in order to scare the customer into trusting her words
An example of divination or fortune-telling as purely an item of pop culture, with little or no vestiges of belief in the occult, would be the Magic 8-Ball sold as a toy by Mattel, or Paul II, an octopus at the Sea Life Aquarium at Oberhausen used to predict the outcome of matches played by the German national football team.
There is opposition against fortune-telling in Christianity, Islam and Judaism based on biblical prohibitions against divination. This sometimes causes discord in the Jewish community due to their views on mysticism. Common methods used for fortune telling in Europe and the Americas include astromancy, horary astrology, pendulum reading, spirit board reading, tasseography (reading tea leaves in a cup), cartomancy (fortune telling with cards), tarot reading, crystallomancy (reading of a crystal sphere), and chriomancy (palmistry, reading of the palms). The last three have traditional associations in the popular mind with the Roma and Sinti people (often called “gypsies”).
Another form of fortune-telling, sometimes called “reading” or “spiritual consultation” does not rely on specific devices or methods, but rather the practitioner gives the client advice and predictions which are said to have come from spirits or in visions.
In Europe and America, fortune-telling is considered a sin within Judaism and Christianity and civil laws have forbidden the practice. Western fortune-tellers typically attempt predictions on matters such as future romantic, financial, and childbearing prospects. Many fortune-tellers will also give “character readings”. These may use numerology, graphology, palmistry, and astrology.
In contemporary Western culture, it appears that women consult fortune-tellers more than men. Some women maintain decades-long relationships with their personal readers. Telephone consultations with psychics (at very high rates) grew in popularity through the 1990s but they have not replaced traditional methods. Since time immemorial humans have longed to learn that which the future holds for them. Thus, in ancient civilization, and even today with fortune telling as a true profession, humankind continues to be curious about its future, both out of sheer curiosity as well as out of desire to better prepare for it.
In 1995 an explanation for why people seek out fortune-tellers: “We desire to know other people’s actions and to resolve our own conflicts regarding decisions to be made and our participation in social groups and economies. Divination seems to have emerged from our knowing the inevitability of death. The idea is clear—we know that our time is limited and that we want things in our lives to happen in accord with our wishes. Realizing that our wishes have little power, we have sought technologies for gaining knowledge of the future gain power over our own lives.”
Ultimately, the reasons a person consults a diviner or fortune teller are mediated by cultural expectations and by personal desires, and until a statistically rigorous study of the phenomenon have been conducted, the question of why people consult fortune-tellers is wide open for opinion-making. Traditional fortune-tellers vary in methodology, generally using techniques long established in their cultures and thus meeting the cultural expectations of their clientele.
In the United States and Canada, among clients of European ancestry, palmistry is popular and, as with astrology and tarot card reading, advice is generally given about specific problems besetting the client.
Non-religious spiritual guidance may also be offered. In the African American community, where many people practice a form of folk magic called hoodoo or root-working, a fortune telling session or “reading” for a client may be followed by practical guidance in spell-casting and Christian prayer, through a process called “magical coaching.”
In addition to sharing and explaining their visions, fortune-tellers can also act like counselors by discussing and offering advice about their clients’ problems. They want their clients to exercise their own willpower.
Some fortune-tellers support themselves entirely on their divination business; others hold down one or more jobs, and their second jobs may or may not relate to the occupation of divining. In 1982, it was found that “while there is considerable variation among secondary occupations, [part-time fortune-tellers] are over-represented in human service fields: counseling, social work, teaching, health care.” Some authors while making a limited survey of North American diviners, found that the majority of fortune-tellers are married with children, and a few claim graduate degrees. “They attend movies, watch television, work at regular jobs, shop at K-Mart, sometimes eat at McDonald’s, and go to the hospital when they are seriously ill.”
In 1982, the sociologists found that, “when it is reasonable, fortunetellers comply with local laws and purchase a business license.” However, in the United States, a variety of local and state laws restrict fortune-telling, require the licensing or bonding of fortune-tellers, or make necessary the use of terminology that avoids the term “fortune-teller” in favor of terms such as “spiritual advisor” or “psychic consultant.” There are also laws that forbid the practice outright in certain districts.
For instance, fortune telling is a class B misdemeanor in the State of New York. Under New York State law, S 165.35: “A person is guilty of fortune telling when, for a fee or compensation which he directly or indirectly solicits or receives, he claims or pretends to tell fortunes, or holds himself out as being able, by claimed or pretended use of occult powers, to answer questions or give advice on personal matters or to exercise, influence or affect evil spirits or curses; except that this section does not apply to a person who engages in the afore-described conduct as part of a show or exhibition solely for the purpose of entertainment or amusement.”
Law-makers who wrote this statute acknowledged that fortune-tellers do not restrict themselves to “a show or exhibition solely for the purpose of entertainment or amusement” and that people will continue to seek out fortune-tellers even though fortune-tellers operate in violation of the law.
Similarly, in New Zealand, Section 16 of the Summary Offences Act 1981 provides a one thousand dollar penalty for anyone who sets out to “deceive or pretend” for financial recompense that they possess telepathy or clairvoyance or acts as a medium for money through use of “fraudulent devices.” As with the New York legislation cited above, however, it is not a criminal offence if it is solely intended for purposes of entertainment.
The Kingdom of Saudi Arabia also bans the practice outright, considering fortune-telling to be sorcery and thus contrary to Islamic teaching and jurisprudence. It has been punishable by death.