I recently had the opportunity to attend a fabulous lecture at Mount Vernon, George Washington’s estate in Virginia. The subject matter being Leadership, Citizenship and Civic Education. This lecture series explores the Father of Our Country’s lifelong accomplishments, providing a better understanding of him as a man, as well as his remarkable leadership, professional achievements and lasting legacy.
What do we think of when we think of citizenship? What is citizenship about? How does it relate to the founding of America and equality in civic education, morality and public policy? You are a citizen of a country by birth or by choice. Allow me to share an example of a citizen: I am a citizen of the United States by having been born in the State of New York. Someone that is a citizen by choice is a person(s) that come to the United States from other countries (for work, as a result of war, famine or other) or a person that marries a United States citizen.
Citizenship is the status of a person recognized under the custom or law of a state that bestows on that person the rights and the duties of citizenship. That may include the right to vote, work and live in the country, the right to return to the country, the right to own real estate, legal protections against the country’s government, and protection through the military or diplomacy. A citizen may also be subject to certain duties, such as a duty to follow the country’s law, to pay taxes, or to serve in the military. A person may have multiple citizenships and a person who does not have citizenship of any state is said to be stateless. Although the term is sometimes understood as denoting a person’s membership of a nation. In some countries, nationality and citizenship can have different meanings.
A person can be a citizen for several reasons. Usually citizenship of the place of birth is automatic; in other cases an application may be required.
(1) Parents are citizens – If one or both of a person’s parents are citizens of a given state, then the person may have the right to be a citizen of that state as well. Formerly this might only have applied through the paternal line, but sex equality became common since the late twentieth century. Citizenship is granted based on ancestry or ethnicity, and is related to the concept of a nation state common in China. A person born outside a country, one or both of whose parents are citizens of the country, is also a citizen. States normally limit the right to citizenship by descent to a certain number of generations born outside the state. This form of citizenship is not common in civil law countries.
(2) Born within a country – Most people are automatically citizens of the state in which they are born. This form of citizenship originated in England where those who were born within the realm were subjects of the monarch (a concept pre-dating citizenship), and is common in common law countries.
(3) Marriage to a citizen. – Many countries fast-track naturalization based on the marriage of a person to a citizen. Countries which are destinations for such immigration often have regulations to try to detect sham marriages, where a citizen marries a non-citizen typically for payment, without them having the intention of living as man and wife.
(4) Naturalization – States normally grant citizenship to people who have entered the country legally and been granted leave to stay, or been granted political asylum, and also lived there for a specified period. In some countries naturalization is subject to conditions which may include passing a test demonstrating reasonable knowledge of the language or way of life of the host country, good conduct (no serious criminal record), swearing allegiance to their new state or its ruler, and renouncing their prior citizenship. Some states allow dual citizenship and do not require naturalized citizens to renounce any other citizenship.
(5) Excluded categories – In the past there have been exclusions on entitlement to citizenship on grounds such as skin color, ethnicity, sex, and free status (not being a slave). Most of these exclusions no longer apply in most places. Slavery permitted slave-owners to have substantial free time, and enabled participation in public life. Citizenship meant having rights to have possessions, immunities, expectations, which were “available in many kinds and degrees, available or unavailable to many kinds of person for many kinds of reason”. And the law, itself, was a kind of bond uniting people. During the Renaissance, people transitioned from being subjects of a king or queen to being citizens of a city and later to a nation. Each city had its own law, courts, and independent administration. And being a citizen often meant being subject to the city’s law in addition to having power in some instances to help choose officials. The rise of citizenship was linked to the rise of republicanism, according to one account, since independent citizens meant that kings had less power. Citizenship became an idealized, almost abstract, concept, and did not signify a submissive relation with a lord or count, but rather indicated the bond between a person and the state in the rather abstract sense of having rights and duties.
The modern idea of citizenship still respects the idea of political participation, but it is usually done through “elaborate systems of political representation at a distance” such as representative democracy. Modern citizenship is much more passive; action is delegated to others; citizenship is often a constraint on acting, not an impetus to act. Nevertheless, citizens are usually aware of their obligations to authorities, and are aware that these bonds often limit what they can do.
Citizenship is a status in society. It is an ideal state as well. It generally describes a person with legal rights within a given political order. It almost always has an element of exclusion, meaning that some people are not citizens, and that this distinction can sometimes be very important, or not important, depending on a particular society. Scholars suggest that the concept of citizenship contains many unresolved issues, sometimes called tensions, existing within the relation, that continue to reflect uncertainty about what citizenship is supposed to mean. Citizenship is based on the extent that a person can control one’s own destiny within the group in the sense of being able to influence the government of the group. One last distinction within citizenship is the so-called consent descent distinction, and this issue addresses whether citizenship is a fundamental matter determined by a person choosing to belong to a particular nation––by his or her consent––or is citizenship a matter of where a person was born––that is, by his or her descent.
The United States has a federal system in which a person is a citizen of their specific state of residence, such as New Jersey or California, as well as a citizen of the United States. State constitutions may grant certain rights above and beyond what are granted under the United States Constitution and may impose their own obligations including the sovereign right of taxation and military service; each state maintains at least one military force subject to national militia transfer service, the state’s national guard, and some states maintain a second military force not subject to nationalization.
Active Citizenship is the philosophy that citizens should work towards the betterment of their community through economic participation, public, volunteer work, and other such efforts to improve life for all citizens.
But what about civic education? Civic Education in a democracy is education in self-government. Democratic self-government means that citizens are actively involved in their own governance; they do not just passively accept the dictums of others or acquiesce to the demands of others. If liberty and equality, as is thought by some, are chiefly to be found in democracy, they will be attained when all persons alike share in the government to the utmost. In other words, the ideals of democracy are most completely realized when every member of the political community shares in its governance. Members of the political community are its citizens; hence citizenship in a democracy is membership in the body politic. Membership implies participation, but not participation for participation’s sake. Citizen participation in a democratic society must be based on informed, critical reflection, and on the understanding and acceptance of the rights and responsibilities that go with that membership.
The founders of the United States tried to reduce the burdens on citizens, because they observed that republics had generally collapsed for lack of civic virtue. However, they also created a structure that would demand more of citizens, and grant citizens more rights, than the empire from which they had declared independence. So virtually all of the founders advocated greater attention to civic education. Opposed to this idea of developing a national identity was Thomas Jefferson, who saw education as the means for safeguarding individual rights, especially against the intrusions of the state. Central to Jefferson’s democratic education were the “liberal arts.” These arts liberate men and women from the grip of both tyrants and demagogues and enable those liberated to rule themselves. Through his ward system of education, Jefferson proposed establishing free schools to teach reading, writing, and arithmetic, and from these schools those of intellectual ability, regardless of background or economic status.
What is sustainability all about? How does it impact the planet? What can I and others do support sustainability and make the planet a better place?
Sustainability generally refers to systems, behaviors and activities aimed at helping to preserve a particular entity or resource. Human sustainability is one category, which involves specific goals, strategies and methods implemented to preserve and improve the quality of human life. Sociological, environmental and resource-based factors contribute to human sustainability
In ecology, sustainability is how biological systems remain diverse and productive. Long-lived and healthy wetlands and forests are examples of sustainable biological systems. In more general terms, sustainability is the endurance of systems and processes. The organizing principle for sustainability is sustainable development, which includes the four interconnected domains: ecology, economics, politics and culture. Sustainability science is the study of sustainable development and environmental science.
Healthy ecosystems and environments are necessary to the survival of humans and other organisms. Ways of reducing negative human impact are environmentally friendly chemical engineering, environmental resource management and environmental protection. Information is gained from green chemistry, earth science, environmental science and conservation biology. Ecological economics studies the fields of academic research that aim to address human economies and natural ecosystems.
Moving towards sustainability is also a social challenge that entails international and national law, urban planning and transport, local and individual lifestyles and ethical consumerism. Ways of living more sustainably can take many forms from reorganizing living conditions, reappraising economic sectors, to adjustments in individual lifestyles that conserve natural resources.
The word sustainability is derived from the Latin sustinere. Sustain can mean “maintain”, “support” or “endure”. Since the 1980s sustainability has been used more in the sense of human sustainability on planet Earth and this has resulted in the most widely quoted definition of sustainability as a part of the concept sustainable development, “sustainable development is development that meets the needs of the present without compromising the ability of future generations to meet their own needs.” Sustainable development consists of balancing local and global efforts to meet basic human needs without destroying or degrading the natural environment. The question then becomes how to represent the relationship between those needs and the environment.
The simple definition that sustainability is something that improves “the quality of human life while living within the carrying capacity of supporting eco-systems”, though vague, conveys the idea of sustainability having quantifiable limits. But sustainability is also a call to action, a task in progress or “journey” and therefore a political process, so some definitions set out common goals and values. The Earth Charter speaks of “a sustainable global society founded on respect for nature, universal human rights, economic justice, and a culture of peace.” This suggested a more complex figure of sustainability, which included the importance of the domain of ‘politics’.
More than that, sustainability implies responsible and proactive decision-making and innovation that minimizes negative impact and maintains balance between ecological resilience, economic prosperity, political justice and cultural vibrancy to ensure a desirable planet for all species now and in the future. Specific types of sustainability include, sustainable agriculture, sustainable agriculture or ecological economics Understanding sustainable development is important but without clear targets an unfocused term like “liberty” or “justice”. It has also been described as a “dialogue of values that challenge the sociology of development”.
The resiliency of an ecosystem, and thereby, its sustainability, can be reasonably measured at junctures or events where the combination of naturally occurring regenerative forces (solar energy, water, soil, atmosphere, vegetation, and biomass) interact with the energy released into the ecosystem from disturbances.
A practical view of sustainability is closed systems that maintain processes of productivity indefinitely by replacing resources used by actions of people with resources of equal or greater value by those same people without degrading or endangering natural biotic systems. In this way, sustainability can be concretely measured in human projects if there is a transparent accounting of the resources put back into the ecosystem to replace those displaced. In nature, the accounting occurs naturally through a process of adaption as an ecosystem returns to viability from an external disturbance. The adaptation is a multi-stage process that begins with the disturbance event (earthquake, volcanic eruption, hurricane, tornado, flood, or thunderstorm), followed by absorption, utilization, or deflection of the energy or energies that the external forces created.
The history of sustainability traces human-dominated ecological systems from the earliest civilizations to the present time. This history is characterized by the increased regional success of a particular society, followed by crises that were either resolved, producing sustainability, or not, leading to decline. In early human history, the use of fire and desire for specific foods may have altered the natural composition of plant and animal communities. Between 8,000 and 10,000 years ago, agrarian communities emerged which depended largely on their environment and the creation of a “structure of permanence.”
In the 21st century, there is increasing global awareness of the threat posed by the human greenhouse effect, produced largely by forest clearing and the burning of fossil fuels.
Sustainability is studied and managed over many scales (levels or frames of reference) of time and space and in many contexts of environmental, social and economic organization. The focus ranges from the total carrying capacity (sustainability) of planet Earth to the sustainability of economic sectors, ecosystems, countries, municipalities, neighborhoods, home gardens, individual lives, individual goods and services, occupations, lifestyles, behavior patterns and so on. In short, it can entail the full compass of biological and human activity or any part of it.
A major driver of human impact on Earth systems is the destruction of biophysical resources, especially, the Earth’s ecosystems. The environmental impact of a community or of humankind as a whole depends both on population and impact per person, which in turn depends in complex ways on what resources are being used, whether or not those resources are renewable, and the scale of the human activity relative to the carrying capacity of the ecosystems involved. Careful resource management can be applied at many scales, from economic sectors like agriculture, manufacturing and industry, to work organizations, the consumption patterns of households and individuals and to the resource demands of individual goods and services.
Sustainability measurement is a term that denotes the measurements used as the quantitative basis for the informed management of sustainability. The metrics used for the measurement of sustainability (involving the sustainability of environmental, social and economic domains, both individually and in various combinations) are evolving: they include indicators, benchmarks, audits, sustainability standards and certification systems like Fairtrade and Organic, indexes and accounting, as well as assessment, appraisal and other reporting systems. They are applied over a wide range of spatial and temporal scales.
Emerging economies like those of China and India aspire to the living standards of the Western world as does the non-industrialized world in general. It is the combination of population increase in the developing world and unsustainable consumption levels in the developed world that poses a stark challenge to sustainability.
As always, population growth has a marked influence on levels of consumption and the efficiency of resource use. The sustainability goal is to raise the global standard of living without increasing the use of resources beyond globally sustainable levels; that is, to not exceed “one planet” consumption. Information generated by reports at the national, regional and city scales confirm the global trend towards societies that are becoming less sustainable over time.
At a fundamental level energy flow and biochemical cycling set an upper limit on the number and mass of organisms in any ecosystem. Human impacts on the Earth are demonstrated in a general way through detrimental changes in the global biogeochemical cycles of chemicals that are critical to life, most notably those of water, oxygen, carbon, nitrogen and phosphorus
WHAT IS HUMAN SUSTAINABILITY?
Sustainability generally refers to systems, behaviors and activities aimed at helping to preserve a particular entity or resource. Human sustainability is one category, which involves specific goals, strategies and methods implemented to preserve and improve the quality of human life. Sociological, environmental and resource-based factors contribute to human sustainability.
Population growth is a major concern in the area of human sustainability. The Center for Sustainability at Aquinas College noted that the world population grows by around 200,000 per day. In general, the Earth contains limited land space for people to live in a healthy, comfortable way. As populations grow, the amount of space and natural resources available to supply them wanes in comparison. Pushes for environmental resource preservation and responsible usage of resources are also important to meeting needs of growing populations. The Aquinas Center advocates limits on childbirth of two children per woman to moderate world population growth.
Another area closely tied to preserving resources for populations is consumption. Emphasis on wellness and recreation is partly driven by the desire to sustain a healthy population. Another reason nutritionists and government entities push for more natural, unprocessed foods is to sustain farms and producers that provide them. Without demand for healthy goods, the companies that produce them won’t have the financial resources to sustain agriculture and production. Additionally, environmental experts advise against excessive consumption of products like plastics and aerosols, which contribute to toxic air and full landfills.
Along with physical sustainability, world leaders have to weigh economic and functional sustainability when making domestic and foreign policy decisions. For example, when a country maintains a high gross domestic product, it benefits populations domestically and globally. Globalization allows countries to collaborate on human sustainability goals. Promoting civilized behaviors and minimizing criminal activities also contribute to sustainability through reduced instances of wars and other massive tragedies. Studies on famine, infant mortality, life spans and extraterrestrial life also contribute to sustainability of civilizations.
Social justice and societal values also fit in the discussion of human sustainability. Social justice is the pursuit of fairness and equality for all people, regardless of ethnicity, race, gender, age, religion and other demographic factors. Shared values within population groups help shape communities and cultures. Social injustice and discrimination in a population contribute to cultural and environmental degradation. These problems also lead to wars, which typically cost thousands of lives and lots of money, while ultimately damaging the environment.
The American Public Health Association (APHA) defines a “sustainable food system” as “one that provides healthy food to meet current food needs while maintaining healthy ecosystems that can also provide food for generations to come with minimal negative impact to the environment. A sustainable food system also encourages local production and distribution infrastructures and makes nutritious food available, accessible, and affordable to all. Further, it is humane and just, protecting farmers and other workers, consumers, and communities.” Concerns about the environmental impacts of agribusiness and the stark contrast between the obesity problems of the Western world and the poverty and food insecurity of the developing world have generated a strong movement towards healthy, sustainable eating as a major component of overall ethical consumerism. The environmental effects of different dietary patterns depend on many factors, including the proportion of animal and plant foods consumed and the method of food production.
The World Health Organization has published a Global Strategy on Diet, Physical Activity and Health report which was endorsed by the May 2004 World Health Assembly. It recommends the Mediterranean diet which is associated with health and longevity and is low in meats, rich in fruits and, low in added sugar and limited salt, and low in saturated fatty acids; the traditional source of fat in the Mediterranean is olive oil, rich in monounsaturated fat. The healthy rice-based Japanese diet is also high in carbohydrates and low in fat. Both diets are low in meat and saturated fats and high in legumes and other vegetables; they are associated with a low incidence of ailments and low environmental impact.
At the global level the environmental impact of agribusiness is being addressed through sustainable agriculture and organic farming. At the local level there are various movements working towards local food production, more productive use of urban wastelands and domestic gardens including permaculture, urban horticulture, local good, slow food, permaculture, urban horticulture, local food, slow food, sustainable gardening, and organic gardening.
Sustainable seafood is seafood from either fished or farmed sources that can maintain or increase production in the future
without jeopardizing the ecosystems from which it was acquired. The sustainable seafood movement has gained momentum as more people become aware about both overfishing and environmentally destructive fishing methods.
Natural resources like land and other raw materials can be found as naturally occurring substances. The value of these deposits is usually dependent on the amount available for extraction. This means that if even valuable resources exist in quantities too small to be extracted profitably or exist in a form that make extraction exceedingly difficult then the value is lessened as a consequence.
However if the amount of available material for extraction as well as the ease of that extraction makes exploitation commercially viable then the value of the land increases as well.
A situation where natural resources or natural capital is being used up faster than replenishment can occur is called an “unsustainable situation”. Natural capital is the store of ecosystems that can provide a flow of material sustainably or indefinitely.
In recent years development agencies have focused on sustainable development because of the obvious depletion of natural resources that has become apparent with the current rates of consumption.
Sustainable development is a mode of consumption with the vision that seeks to provide for the needs of humanity while safeguarding the environment so that it will still be capable of providing for the needs of future generations of humanity.
Sustainable development deals with more than environmental issues alone. Sustainable development is a process that comprises all aspects of human society that can affect human sustenance. This means that the conflict between the so-called “triple bottom line” must be resolved.
Harmony must be achieved in the conflicting objectives of social equity, environmental quality and economic prosperity social equity.
Living sustainably will go a long way towards sustainability of natural resources. Each of us can do our part and make it count. Our natural resources will not last forever at the rate that human society is using them up.
Recycling, reducing waste generation, and conservation of valuable resources are our best hopes so that our ecosystems will still be capable of providing for the generations to come.
PREDICTING THE FUTURE
WHY GO TO FORTUNE TELLERS, MEDIUMS AND OTHERS?
What Is A Clairvoyant? What Is A Fortune Teller? What about a Medium?
Fortune-telling is the practice of predicting information about a person’s life. The scope of fortune-telling is in principle identical with the practice of divination. The difference is that divination is the term used for predictions considered part of a religious ritual, invoking deities or spirits, while the term fortune-telling implies a less serious or formal setting, even one of popular culture, where belief in occult workings behind the prediction is less prominent than the concept of suggestion, spiritual or practical advisory or affirmation.
You may have heard the word “medium” used during discussions about psychic abilities, particularly those involving communication with the spirit world. Traditionally, a medium is someone who speaks, in one way or another, to the dead. Mediums obtain messages from the spirit world in different ways. Some receive intuitive information, in which images and words appear as mental impressions that are then relayed along to the living. In other cases, a medium may hear actual auditory messages or see actual images of these messages.
Clairvoyance often stands for “seeing clearly“. To be known as a type of Psychic gift, this ability enables a reader, also known as a Clairvoyant, to see the invisible, remote, or spiritual things. Some Clairvoyants are the remote viewers. In other words, they can see something that is happening far away. Although they are not basically visions of the future, they are truly visions of the present. These special Clairvoyants are often proficient in searching for the missing people or items since they might observe the right location at the time which the inquiry is being asked. In addition, other Clairvoyants tend to get more spiritual information. Yes, they could see the auras, energy fields, or even look at someone, and then physically observe the status of their chakra. These types of Clairvoyants can also notice the spirit realm clearly which may be alarming whenever they do not know what to expect or when they are opening up to their powers for the first time.
A Fortune Teller is really adept at dramatizing a circumstance or a session. Through making use of numerous devices, this sacred reader is able to convince a customer that her prediction or consultation is truly genuine, and she herself owns a unique bond with the divine force. She will quickly understand that her seeker takes his own life most seriously, and will find any way to resolve his future. Taking advantage of the knowledge that uncertainty and fear are 2 of the greatest motivators for a person, a Fortune Teller will surely develop a sense of imminence around her forecast in order to scare the customer into trusting her words
An example of divination or fortune-telling as purely an item of pop culture, with little or no vestiges of belief in the occult, would be the Magic 8-Ball sold as a toy by Mattel, or Paul II, an octopus at the Sea Life Aquarium at Oberhausen used to predict the outcome of matches played by the German national football team.
There is opposition against fortune-telling in Christianity, Islam and Judaism based on biblical prohibitions against divination. This sometimes causes discord in the Jewish community due to their views on mysticism. Common methods used for fortune telling in Europe and the Americas include astromancy, horary astrology, pendulum reading, spirit board reading, tasseography (reading tea leaves in a cup), cartomancy (fortune telling with cards), tarot reading, crystallomancy (reading of a crystal sphere), and chriomancy (palmistry, reading of the palms). The last three have traditional associations in the popular mind with the Roma and Sinti people (often called “gypsies”).
Another form of fortune-telling, sometimes called “reading” or “spiritual consultation” does not rely on specific devices or methods, but rather the practitioner gives the client advice and predictions which are said to have come from spirits or in visions.
In Europe and America, fortune-telling is considered a sin within Judaism and Christianity and civil laws have forbidden the practice. Western fortune-tellers typically attempt predictions on matters such as future romantic, financial, and childbearing prospects. Many fortune-tellers will also give “character readings”. These may use numerology, graphology, palmistry, and astrology.
In contemporary Western culture, it appears that women consult fortune-tellers more than men. Some women maintain decades-long relationships with their personal readers. Telephone consultations with psychics (at very high rates) grew in popularity through the 1990s but they have not replaced traditional methods. Since time immemorial humans have longed to learn that which the future holds for them. Thus, in ancient civilization, and even today with fortune telling as a true profession, humankind continues to be curious about its future, both out of sheer curiosity as well as out of desire to better prepare for it.
In 1995 an explanation for why people seek out fortune-tellers: “We desire to know other people’s actions and to resolve our own conflicts regarding decisions to be made and our participation in social groups and economies. Divination seems to have emerged from our knowing the inevitability of death. The idea is clear—we know that our time is limited and that we want things in our lives to happen in accord with our wishes. Realizing that our wishes have little power, we have sought technologies for gaining knowledge of the future gain power over our own lives.”
Ultimately, the reasons a person consults a diviner or fortune teller are mediated by cultural expectations and by personal desires, and until a statistically rigorous study of the phenomenon have been conducted, the question of why people consult fortune-tellers is wide open for opinion-making. Traditional fortune-tellers vary in methodology, generally using techniques long established in their cultures and thus meeting the cultural expectations of their clientele.
In the United States and Canada, among clients of European ancestry, palmistry is popular and, as with astrology and tarot card reading, advice is generally given about specific problems besetting the client.
Non-religious spiritual guidance may also be offered. In the African American community, where many people practice a form of folk magic called hoodoo or root-working, a fortune telling session or “reading” for a client may be followed by practical guidance in spell-casting and Christian prayer, through a process called “magical coaching.”
In addition to sharing and explaining their visions, fortune-tellers can also act like counselors by discussing and offering advice about their clients’ problems. They want their clients to exercise their own willpower.
Some fortune-tellers support themselves entirely on their divination business; others hold down one or more jobs, and their second jobs may or may not relate to the occupation of divining. In 1982, it was found that “while there is considerable variation among secondary occupations, [part-time fortune-tellers] are over-represented in human service fields: counseling, social work, teaching, health care.” Some authors while making a limited survey of North American diviners, found that the majority of fortune-tellers are married with children, and a few claim graduate degrees. “They attend movies, watch television, work at regular jobs, shop at K-Mart, sometimes eat at McDonald’s, and go to the hospital when they are seriously ill.”
In 1982, the sociologists found that, “when it is reasonable, fortunetellers comply with local laws and purchase a business license.” However, in the United States, a variety of local and state laws restrict fortune-telling, require the licensing or bonding of fortune-tellers, or make necessary the use of terminology that avoids the term “fortune-teller” in favor of terms such as “spiritual advisor” or “psychic consultant.” There are also laws that forbid the practice outright in certain districts.
For instance, fortune telling is a class B misdemeanor in the State of New York. Under New York State law, S 165.35: “A person is guilty of fortune telling when, for a fee or compensation which he directly or indirectly solicits or receives, he claims or pretends to tell fortunes, or holds himself out as being able, by claimed or pretended use of occult powers, to answer questions or give advice on personal matters or to exercise, influence or affect evil spirits or curses; except that this section does not apply to a person who engages in the afore-described conduct as part of a show or exhibition solely for the purpose of entertainment or amusement.”
Law-makers who wrote this statute acknowledged that fortune-tellers do not restrict themselves to “a show or exhibition solely for the purpose of entertainment or amusement” and that people will continue to seek out fortune-tellers even though fortune-tellers operate in violation of the law.
Similarly, in New Zealand, Section 16 of the Summary Offences Act 1981 provides a one thousand dollar penalty for anyone who sets out to “deceive or pretend” for financial recompense that they possess telepathy or clairvoyance or acts as a medium for money through use of “fraudulent devices.” As with the New York legislation cited above, however, it is not a criminal offence if it is solely intended for purposes of entertainment.
The Kingdom of Saudi Arabia also bans the practice outright, considering fortune-telling to be sorcery and thus contrary to Islamic teaching and jurisprudence. It has been punishable by death.
MARTIN LUTHER KING, JR.
What Makes Martin Luther King, Jr., so important? Was it his faith, race or the movement he was such an important part of? I think it’s a combination of things because he was involved in the Civil Rights Movement from the very beginning, and if it wasn’t for this involvement, who knows where Civil Rights in the United States would be today. There is a plethora of information on Dr. King and the Civil Rights Movement that would possibly make up a small book, that I have only done a small amount here on this important gentleman.
Martin Luther King, Jr. was an American pastor, activist, humanitarian, and leader in the African-American Civil Rights Movement. He is best known for his role in the advancement of civil rights using nonviolent civil disobedience based on his Christian beliefs.
Born Michael King, his father changed his name in honor of reformer Martin Luther. A Baptist minister, King became a civil rights activist early in his career. He led the 1955 Montgomery Bus Boycott and helped found the Southern Christian Leadership Conference (SCLC) in 1957, serving as its first president. King also helped to organize the 1963 March on Washington, where he delivered his “I Have a Dream” speech. There, he established his reputation as one of the greatest orators in American history. He also established his reputation as a radical, and became an object of the FBI for the rest of his life. FBI agents investigated him for possible communist ties, recorded his extramarital liaisons and reported on them to government officials, and on one occasion, mailed King a threatening anonymous letter that he interpreted as an attempt to make him commit suicide.
On October 14, 1964, King received the Nobel Peace Prize for combating racial inequality through nonviolence. In 1965, he and the SCLC helped to organize the Selma to Montgomery marches and the following year, he took the movement north to Chicago. In the final years of his life, King expanded his focus to include poverty and the Vietnam War, alienating many of his liberal allies with a 1967 speech titled “Beyond Vietnam.” In 1968, King was planning a national occupation of Washington, D.C., to be called the Poor People’s Campaign, when he was assassinated on April 4, in Memphis, Tennessee. Allegations that James Earl Ray, the man convicted of killing King, had been framed or acted in concert with government agents persisted for decades after the shooting.
King was awarded the Presidential Medal of Freedom and the Congressional Gold Medal posthumously. Martin Luther King, Jr. Day was established as a U.S. federal holiday in 1986. Hundreds of streets and a county in the U.S. have been renamed in his honor. A memorial status on the National Mall was opened to the public in 2011.
As a Christian minister, Martin Luther King’s main influence was Jesus Christ and the Christian gospels, which he would almost always quote in his religious meetings, speeches at church, and in public discourses. King’s faith was strongly based in Jesus’ commandment of loving your neighbor as yourself, loving God above all, and loving your enemies, praying for them and blessing them. His non-violent
thought was also based in the injunction to turn the other cheek in the Sermon on the Mount, and Jesus’ teaching of putting the sword back into its place In his famous Letter from Birmingham Jail, King urged action consistent with what he describes as Jesus’ “extremist” love, and also quoted numerous other Christian pacifist authors, which was very usual for him. In his speech I’ve been to the Mountaintop, he stated that he just wanted to do God’s will.
Inspired by Mahatma Gandhi’s success with non-violent activism, King had “for a long time…wanted to take a trip to India.” With assistance from the Quaker group the American Friends Service Committee, he was able to make the journey in April 1959. The trip to India affected King, deepening his understanding of non-violent resistance and his commitment to America’s struggle for civil rights. In a radio address made during his final evening in India, King reflected, “Since being in India, I am more convinced than ever before that the method of nonviolent resistance is the most potent weapon available to oppressed people in their struggle for justice and human dignity”. King’s admiration of Gandhi’s non-violence did not diminish in later years, he went so far as to hold up his example when receiving the Nobel Peace Prize in 1964, hailing the “successful precedent” of using non-violence “in a magnificent way by Mohandas K. Gandhi to Challenge the might of the British Empire…He struggled only with the weapons of truth, soul force, non-injury and courage.” Gandhi seemed to have influenced him with certain moral principles; both Gandhi and Martin Luther King had read Tolstoy. All three men—Tolstoy, Gandhi, and King—had been influenced by Jesus’ teachings on non-violent resistance to evil force.
As the leader of the SCLC, King maintained a policy of not publicly endorsing a U.S. political party or candidate: “I feel someone must remain in the position of non-alignment, so that he can look objectively at both parties and be the conscience of both—not the servant or master of either. In a 1958 interview, he expressed his view that neither party was perfect, saying, “I don’t think the Republican Party is a party full of the almighty God nor is the Democratic Party. They both have weaknesses … And I’m not inextricably bound to either party.” Although King never publicly supported a political party or candidate for president, in a letter to a civil rights supporter in October 1956 he said that he was undecided as to whether he would vote for Adlai Stevenson or Dwight Eisenhower, but that “In the past I always voted the Democratic ticket.” In his autobiography, King says that in 1960 he privately voted for Democratic candidate John F. F. Kennedy. “I felt that Kennedy would make the best president. I never came out with an endorsement. My father did, but I never made one.” King adds that he likely would have made an exception to his non-endorsement policy for a second Kennedy term, saying “Had President Kennedy lived; I would probably have endorsed him in 1964.”
On December 1, 1955, Rosa Parks was arrested for refusing to give up her seat. The Montgomery Bus Boycott urged and planned by Nixon and led by King, soon followed. The boycott lasted for 385 days, and the situation became so tense that King’s house was bombed King’s role in the bus boycott transformed him into a national figure and the best-known spokesman of the civil rights movement. King believed that organized, nonviolent protest against the system of southern segregation known as Jim Crow laws would lead to extensive media coverage of the struggle for black equality and voting rights. Journalistic accounts and televised footage of the daily deprivation and indignities suffered by southern blacks, and of segregationist violence and harassment of civil rights workers and marchers, produced a wave of sympathetic public opinion that convinced the majority of Americans that the Civil Rights
Movement was the most important issue in American politics in the early 1960s. King organized and led marches for blacks’ right to vote, desegregation, labor rights and other basic civil rights. The SCLC’s 1957 Prayer Pilgrimage for Freedom was the first time King addressed a national audience. Most of these rights were successfully enacted into the law of the United States with the passage of the Civil Rights Act of 1964 and the 1965 Voting Rights Act.
King and the SCLC put into practice many of the principles of the Christian Left and applied the tactics of nonviolent protest with great success by strategically choosing the method of protest and the places in which protests were carried out. There were often dramatic stand-offs with segregationist authorities. Sometimes these confrontations turned violent. In April 1963, the SCLC began a campaign against racial segregation and economic injustice in Birmingham, Alabama. The campaign used nonviolent but intentionally confrontational tactics, developed in part by Rev. Wyatt Tee Walker. Black people in Birmingham, organizing with the SCLC, occupied public spaces with marches and sit-ins, openly violating laws that they considered unjust.
King’s intent was to provoke mass arrests and “create a situation so crisis-packed that it will inevitably open the door to negotiation”. However, the campaign’s early volunteers did not succeed in shutting down the city, or in drawing media attention to the police’s actions. Over the concerns of an uncertain King, SCLC strategist James Bevel changed the course of the campaign by recruiting children and young adults to join in the demonstrations.
The March on Washington originally was conceived as an event to dramatize the desperate condition of blacks in the southern U.S. and an opportunity to place organizers’ concerns and grievances squarely before the seat of power in the nation’s capital. Organizers intended to denounce the federal government for its failure to safeguard the civil rights and physical safety of civil rights workers and blacks. However, the group acquiesced to presidential pressure and influence, and the event ultimately took on a far less strident tone. As a result, some civil rights activists felt it presented an inaccurate, sanitized pageant of racial harmony; Malcolm X called it the “Farce on Washington”, and the Nation of Islam forbade its members from attending the march. The march did, however, make specific demands: an end to racial segregation in public schools; meaningful civil rights legislation, including a law prohibiting racial discrimination in employment; protection of civil rights workers from police brutality; a $2 minimum wage for all workers; and self-government for Washington, DC., then governed by congressional committee. Despite tensions, the march was a resounding success. More than a quarter of a million people of diverse ethnicities attended the event, sprawling from the steps of the Lincoln Memorial onto the National Mall and around the reflecting pool. At the time, it was the largest gathering of protesters in Washington, D.C.’s history. King delivered a 17-minute speech, later known as “I Have a Dream.” In the speech’s most famous passage—in which he departed from his prepared text, possibly at the prompting of Mahalia Jackson, who shouted behind him, “Tell them about the dream!”—King said:
I say to you today, my friends, so even though we face the difficulties of today and tomorrow, I still have a dream. It is a dream deeply rooted in the American dream.
I have a dream that one day this nation will rise up and live out the true meaning of its creed: ‘We hold these truths to be self-evident: that all men are created equal.’
I have a dream that one day on the red hills of Georgia the sons of former slaves and the sons of former slave owners will be able to sit down together at the table of brotherhood.
I have a dream that one day even the state of Mississippi, a state sweltering with the heat of injustice, sweltering with the heat of oppression, will be transformed into an oasis of freedom and justice.
I have a dream that my four little children will one day live in a nation where they will not be judged by the color of their skin but by the content of their character.
I have a dream today.
I have a dream that one day, down in Alabama, with its vicious racists, with its governor having his lips dripping with the words of interposition and nullification; one day right there in Alabama, little black boys and black girls will be able to join hands with little white boys and white girls as sisters and brothers.
I have a dream today.
“I Have a Dream” came to be regarded as one of the finest speeches in the history of American oratory. The March, and especially King’s speech, helped put civil rights at the top of the agenda of reformers in the United States and facilitated passage of the Civil Rights Act of 1964.
The original, typewritten copy of the speech, including Dr. King’s handwritten notes on it, was discovered in 1984 to be in the hands of George Raveling, the first African-American basketball coach of the University of Iowa. In 1963, Raveling, then 26, was standing near the podium, and immediately after the oration, impulsively asked King if he could have his copy of the speech. He got it.
KIDS AND EXERCISE
Should children get more exercise? It is necessary? With more and more children electing to play video games, watching far too much television and using other viral medium, it is more important than ever for them to have proper nutrition as well as do more exercise to help curb the tide of childhood obesity that is so prevalent today.
When most adults think about exercise, they imagine working out in the gym on a treadmill or lifting weights. But for kids, exercise means playing and being physically active. Kids exercise when they have gym class at school, during recess, at dance class or soccer practice, while riding bikes, or when playing tag. They need to do more away from school or other outside activities. These days, far too many children in the United States aren’t doing as well on fitness tests as children did in the past. Why is that? They would rather veg in front the TV, play video games or other less active things. This leads to a growing number of children that are showing signs of diabetes, heart disease and other types of health problems all of which can be linked to a lack of exercise.
The U.S. Department of Agriculture emphasizes that fitness matches good nutrition as an important factor for kids’ growth and development. Research has shown that kids who don’t exercise grow into adults with higher risks for heart disease and diabetes. The American Diabetes Association warns that a surprisingly large number of kids now develop Type II diabetes. The disease was once almost unknown in young people.
There are so many benefits of regular exercise. Regular exercise can help reduce a child’s risk for Type II diabetes. Fitness also helps kids to control blood pressure, develop muscle and bone strength, and improve heart function. Girls who exercise may reduce their risk for osteoporosis later in life. In addition, kids who begin to exercise generally see improvements in concentration, memory and classroom behavior.
Parents and guardians may assume that kids naturally get enough exercise. Some parents believe that school gym programs provide kids with enough fitness opportunities. This is such a misconception. When in reality, budget cuts at schools, shifting priorities and time considerations mean that most schools do not provide kids with the minimum recommended amount of daily physical activity. At home, TV and video games have replaced sports and games for many kids. The average high school student watches at least 4 hours of TV every day. Honestly, this is not a good idea.
According to the President’s Council on Physical Fitness and Sports, children and teens need at least 60 minutes of activity every day. The hour can be broken into smaller sections to fit busy schedules. According to the council, less than one-fourth of high school students get the minimum amount of exercise.
Local parks, community centers and YMCAs often offer physical activities for kids. These programs provide a structured, safe environment for kids to exercise. They also allow parents an easy means to ensure that their children spend enough time on physical activities each day. The benefits of exercising when young can include a lifetime commitment to fitness. Let children choose sports or activities they enjoy and will continue. Kids are more likely to exercise when they see adults around them do the same. Good role models make a huge difference.
I feel that there are many benefits for everyone from regular exercise. Kids who are active will: (1) have stronger muscles and bones; (2) have a leaner body because exercise helps control body fat; (3) be less likely to become overweight; (4) decrease the risk of developing type 2 diabetes; (5) possibly lower blood pressure and blood cholesterol levels; and (6) have a better outlook on life. Besides enjoying the health benefits of regular exercise, kids who are physically fit sleep better and are better able to handle physical and emotional challenges — from running to catch a bus to studying for a test.
If you’ve ever watched kids on a playground, you’ve seen the three elements of fitness in action when they: (1) run away from the kid who’s “it” (endurance); (2) cross the monkey bars (strength); and (3) bend down to tie their shoes (flexibility).
All parents should encourage their kids to do a variety of activities so that they can work on all three elements. Endurance is developed when kids regularly engage in aerobic activity. During aerobic exercise, the heart beats faster and a person breathes harder. When done regularly and for extended periods of time, aerobic activity strengthens the heart and improves the body’s ability to deliver oxygen to all its cells.
Aerobic exercise can be fun for both adults and kids. Examples of aerobic activities include: (a) basketball; (b) bicycling; (c) ice-skating; (d) inline skating; (e) soccer; (f) swimming; (g) tennis; (h) walking; (i) jogging; and (j) running
Improving strength doesn’t have to mean lifting weights. Although some kids benefit from weightlifting, it should be done under the supervision of an experienced adult who works with them. But most kids don’t need a formal weight-training program to be strong. Push-ups, stomach crunches, pull-ups, and other exercises help tone and strengthen muscles. Kids also incorporate strength activities in their play when they climb, do a handstand, or wrestle.
Stretching exercises help improve flexibility, allowing muscles and joints to bend and move easily through their full range of motion. Kids look for opportunities every day to stretch when they try to get a toy just out of reach, practice a split, or do a cartwheel.
The percentage of overweight and obese kids and teens has more than doubled in the past 30 years. Although many factors contribute to this epidemic, children are becoming more sedentary. In other words, they’re sitting around a lot more than they used to.
One of the best ways to get kids to be more active is to limit the amount of time spent in sedentary activities, especially watching TV or playing video games. The American Academy of Pediatrics (AAP) recommends these limits on screen time: (a) kids under age 2 should watch no TV at all; and (2) kids older than 2 should be restricted to just 1-2 hours a day of quality programming (even if that means you or another responsible adult monitor what they are watching).
Parents should make sure that their kids get enough exercise. So, how much is enough? Kids and teens get 60 minutes or more of physical activity daily. Infants and young children should not be inactive for prolonged periods of time — no more than 1 hour unless they’re sleeping. And school-age children should not be inactive for periods longer than 2 hours.
Combining regular physical activity with a healthy diet is the key to a healthy lifestyle. Thankfully there many parents/guardians have started on this path. But it is just the beginning. There is still quite a lot that must be done.
Here are some tips for raising fit kids: (1) Help your kids participate in a variety of age-appropriate activities; (2) Establish a regular schedule for physical activity; (3) Incorporate activity into daily routines, such as taking the stairs instead of the elevator; (4) Embrace a healthier lifestyle yourself, so you’ll be a positive role model for your family; and (5) Keep it fun, so you can count on your kids to come back for more.
Guidelines from the Department of Health and Human Services say that children and adolescents age 6 and older need at least an hour a day of physical activity. Most of the hour should be either moderate or vigorous aerobic activity. In addition, children should participate in muscle-strengthening and bone-strengthening activities at least three days a week.
Many classic activities — such as playing on playground equipment and jumping rope — cover all the bases at once. Organized sports are a great way to stay fit too. But team sports or dance classes aren’t the only options.
Get creative as you search for activities your child enjoys. If your child is artistically inclined, take a nature hike to collect leaves and rocks for use in a collage. If your child likes to climb, head for the nearest jungle gym. If your child likes to read, walk or bike to a local library for a book. Or simply turn on your child’s favorite music and dance in the living room.
Exercise with your child to better your own health while helping modeling for and stimulating your child to develop good exercise habits. Remember, incorporating physical activity into your child’s daily routine sets the foundation for a lifetime of fitness and good health.
TRENDING IN INFORMATION TECHNOLOGY
What is information technology about?
What are some of the latest trends in information technology?
The current world is techno-centric more than ever. The rapidly expanding information sector has left a huge disparity between where the world is heading and the approaches businesses are employing to run their operations. The challenges to businesses are therefore phenomenal especially considering the fact the IT industry is undergoing a tectonic shift in technology. Different aspects of the computing landscape are changing at the same time including communication, delivery platforms and collaboration channels. With the information technology sector, technological innovations are short-lived as they are frequently changing with time. Nothing lasts forever.
Information technology (IT) is the application of computers and telecommunications equipment to store, retrieve, transmit and manipulate data, often in the context of a business or other enterprise. The term is commonly used as a synonym for computers and computer networks, but it also encompasses other information distribution technologies such as television and telephones. Several industries are associated with information technology, including computer hardware, software, electronics, semiconductors, internet, telecom equipment, e-commerce and computer services.
Humans have been storing, retrieving, manipulating and communicating information since the Sumerians in Mesopotamia developed writing around3000 BC, but the term information technology in its modern sense first appeared in a 1958. This term consists of three categories: techniques for processing, the application of statistical and mathematical methods to decision-making, and the simulation of higher-order thinking through computer programs.
Devices have been used to aid computation for thousands of years, probably initially in the form of a tally stick. The Antikythera mechanism is considered to be the earliest known mechanical analog computer, and the earliest known geared mechanism. Comparable geared devices did not emerge in Europe until the 16th century, and it was not until 1645 that the first mechanical calculator capable of performing the four basic arithmetical operations was developed.
Electronic computers, using either relays or valves, began to appear in the early 1940s. The electromechanical Zuse Z3, completed in 1941, was the world’s first programmable computer, and by modern standards one of the first machines that could be considered a complete computing machine. Colossus, developed during the Second World War to decrypt German messages was the first electronic digital computer. Although it was programmable, it was not general-purpose, being designed to perform only a single task. It also lacked the ability to store its program in memory; programming was carried out using plugs and switches to alter the internal wiring
The development of transistors in the late 1940s at Bell Laboratories allowed a new generation of computers to be designed with greatly reduced power consumption. The first commercially available stored-program computer, the Ferranti Mark I, contained 4050 valves and had a power consumption of 25 kilowatts. By comparison the first transistorized computer, developed at the University of Manchester and operational by November 1953, consumed only 150 watts in its final version. Early electronic computers such as Colossus made use of punched tape, a long strip of paper on which data was represented by a series of holes, a technology now obsolete. Electronic data storage, which is used in modern computers, dates from the Second World War, when a form of delayed line memory was developed to remove the clutter from radar signals, the first practical application of which was the mercury delay line. The first random-access digital storage device was the Williams tube, based on a standard cathode ray tube, but the information stored in it and delay line memory was volatile in that it had to be continuously refreshed, and thus was lost once power was removed.
IBM introduced the first hard disk drive in 1956, as a component of their 305 RAMAC computer system. Most digital data today is still stored magnetically on hard disks, or optically on media such as CD-ROMS. Until 2002 most information was stored on analog devices, but that year digital storage capacity exceeded analog for the first time. As of 2007 almost 94% of the data stored worldwide was held digitally: 52% on hard disks, 28% on optical devices and 11% on digital magnetic tape. It has been estimated that the worldwide capacity to store information on electronic devices grew from less than 3 exabytes in 1986 to 295 exabytes in 2007, doubling roughly every 3 years.
Database management systems emerged in the 1960s to address the problem of storing and retrieving large amounts of data accurately and quickly. One of the earliest such systems was IBM’s Information Management System (IMS), which is still widely deployed more than 40 years later, IMS stores data hierarchically. The first commercially available relational database management system (RDBMS) was available from Oracle in 1980.
All database management systems consist of a number of components that together allow the data they store to be accessed simultaneously by many users while maintaining its integrity. A characteristic of all databases is that the structure of the data they contain is defined and stored separately from the data itself, in a database schema.
The terms “data” and “information” are not synonymous. Anything stored is data, but it only becomes information when it is organized and presented meaningfully. Most of the world’s digital data is unstructured, and stored in a variety of different physical formats even within a single organization. Data warehouses began to be developed in the 1980s to integrate these disparate stores. They typically contain data extracted from various sources, including external sources such as the Internet, organized in such a way as to facilitate decision support systems (DSS).
Data transmission has three aspects: transmission, propagation, and reception. It can be broadly categorized as broadcasting, in which information is transmitted uni-directionally downstream, or telecommunications, with bidirectional upstream and downstream channels.
XML has been increasingly employed as a means of data interchange since the early 2000s, particularly for machine-oriented interactions such as those involved in web-oriented protocols such as SOAP, describing “data-in-transit rather than data-at-rest”. One of the challenges of such usage is converting data from relational databases into XML Document Object Model (DOM) structures.
Massive amounts of data are stored worldwide every day, but unless it can be analyzed and presented effectively it essentially resides in what have been called data tombs: “data archives that are seldom visited”. To address that issue, the field of data mining – “the process of discovering interesting patterns and knowledge from large amounts of data” – emerged in the late 1980s.
In an academic context, the Association for Computing Machinery defines IT as “undergraduate degree programs that prepare students to meet the computer technology needs of business, government, healthcare, schools, and other kinds of organizations IT specialists assume responsibility for selecting hardware and software products appropriate for an organization, integrating those products with organizational needs and infrastructure, and installing, customizing, and maintaining those applications for the organization’s computer users.”
In a business context, information technology has been defined as “the study, design, development, application, implementation, support or management of computer-based information systems”. The responsibilities of those working in the field include network administration, software development and installation, and the planning and management of an organization’s technology life cycle, by which hardware and software are maintained, upgraded and replaced. The business value of information technology lies in the automation of business processes, provision of information for decision making, connecting businesses with their customers, and the provision of productivity tools to increase efficiency.
So what are the latest trends in information technology? Next generation mobile devices and mobile apps: They are the smart phones and tablets. The different varieties of smart mobile devices incorporate mobile applications such as iOS, Androids, Symbian OS, webos, Windows Phone and the Blackberry OS/QNX. Their usage is already increasing globally and is quickly replacing traditional handsets. The next generation mobile devices are slowly gaining momentum with the sale of PCs. Within a few years’ time, the sales will have leveled. Mobile applications are increasingly being used in marketing strategies such as mobile affiliate marketing.
Social media – The world is increasingly using social networking sites to stay in touch and communicate. The focus of enterprise marketing has now shifted to the use of social media for promotion of products and services. Organizations are now becoming social enterprises. Social media has provided a platform for business to directly access a global audience. Businesses are employing social media marketing due to its affordability compared to traditional marketing strategies. Social network is quickly shaping the direction of society and business.
Cloud computing – It is certainly one of the most sophisticated of the latest trends in information technology. Cloud computing provides services such as software, computation, data access and storage services without the end- user knowing the knowledge of the physical location and the configuration of the system that provides the service. It is especially effective in cutting running costs for business for data storage and other operation costs. Data- centers are now being down- sized to pave way for cloud storage. Cloud computing also has in- built scalability and elasticity features which can efficiently guide the growth of businesses.
Consumerization of Information Technology – Technological innovation is actually driven by the consumer world. More mobile applications are increasingly being built for the purpose of mobile users but not for the replacement of computer applications. The days of monolithic suits are slowly fading away and are being taken over by applications meant specifically for mobile tablets and smart phones.
Big data/ analytics and patterns – As companies continue to drown in unstructured data which they hardly access; innovations like the SLDF are being incorporated in order to manage data. There are different kinds of SLDF which include waterfall and the Agile Development Methodology. Some of the features of ADM include continuous integration of data, pair programming, offering spike solutions and refactoring. The waterfall is more traditional but is being fast replaced by the Agile Development Methodology systems. Other effective systems of data management include technologies such as in- line duplication, flash or solid- state drives and automated tiering of data.
Resource management – Servers are being virtualized which benefits businesses in reducing work load management. Data centers are moving towards smaller sizes but with greater density for data storage, i.e. creation of infinite data centers. Virtualization enables the improvement of vertically scale data centers. Its use optimizes server performance hence creating more floor space and saving on energy. New scripting languages: They include Java and .NET. Some of the features and benefits of .NET include a fast turnaround time, a simpler AJAX implementation, and a single framework that handles a variety of operations. There is therefore no need for multiple frameworks from different vendors in order to perform different functionalities. It is also better funded thus, enabling new features to come out at the fastest pace possible. Some of the features integrated into the platform include LINQ, AJAX, the Unit Testing Framework, Performance Profiler, and Client Side Reporting among various other features. Java is quite similar to .NET in features and benefits.
Fabrics – This is the vertical integration of server systems, network and storage systems along with components that have element- level management software which lays the foundation that can optimize shared data resources effectively and dynamically. Systems that are incorporating this feature are Cisco and HP which use it to unify network control.